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Pet Wallaby Care: A Comprehensive Care Guide for Beginners


Melissa cares for a variety of exotic animals and has completed a certificate in veterinary assisting and a bachelor's degree in biology.

Wallabies as Pets

Wallabies are medium-sized macropods that are closely related to kangaroos, wallaroos, pademelons, quokkas, and less closely related to marsupials like bettongs, rat-kangaroos, and potoroos.

They are found on the Australian continent (Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea) of which they are indigenous. Wallabies are charismatic animals that most people can identify with, being so similar to their larger cousins that have come to symbolize Australia.

There are several types of wallaby found in the pet trade including:

  • Bennet’s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus)
  • Tammar or Dama Wallaby (Macropus eugenii)
  • Agile Wallaby (Macropus agilis)

The species most commonly kept in captivity is the Bennet’s wallaby. Wallabies are relatively common for exotic mammals and there is even an albino color variant that is caused by a recessive gene. Although they are somewhat rare, they are becoming more common in the United States [9].

Do Wallabies Make Good Pets?

Wallabies breed easily in captivity and may be the most commonly-exhibited marsupial in zoos [1]. Relative to other uncommon exotic pets and based on the criteria of the typical pet keeper, wallabies can make good pets when kept as mostly outdoor animals.

Like most exotics, the wallabies that make the best pets are those which are hand-raised and human-socialized. This process is essential for the wallabies to adapt to captivity and persistent human handling [7].

One study assessing the traits of several exotic mammals concluded that wallabies (agile and tammar), along with Asian palm civets and sika deer, make the best pets based on their experimental framework [3]. Of course, there are several factors to consider that will affect the pet quality of wallabies and most other exotic pets, such as reproductive status (are they neutered or spayed?), degree of socialization, and sex of the animal [2]. Unlike kangaroos, wallabies are too small to cause severe injury, although some males can be quite larger than females [2].

Still, wallabies have a powerful kick that should not be underestimated [7]. While wallabies are relatively easier to care for, inadequate husbandry can make them prone to infection [7].

Essentials for Raising Joeys

Most new wallaby owners will start with acquiring a young, furred joey which will be approximately 6-8 months old [9]. They will wean at 13-15 months depending on the species [9].

Baby wallabies should be maintained in specially made suspended, thick pouches that have an inner lining made out of wool, cotton, or another insulation material [6]. This pouch should be regularly cleaned [6].

The temperature should be maintained at approximately 32-36 degrees C (89-96 F), which should be higher for joeys without fur and lower when they become furred (28-30 C or 82-86F). It is better to keep fully furred joeys insulated rather than heated artificially, although supplementary heating may be used at night depending on the temperature [9].

At a younger age, joeys will spend most of their time in this pouch, however, the caretaker can gradually allow them out after feeding time, offering a variety of forage. Joeys in the pouch should be mentally stimulated and exercised by being carried, groomed, and exposed to a variety of solid food. There are many other important aspects of care such as [7]:

  • Young joeys may need to be given an artificial teat to suck on which is important to them psychologically [9].
  • Keep the joey's pouch well insulated using blankets or liners instead of artificial heat and feel the baby with your lips to ensure they feel warm. Joeys are overheated if their head is thickly furred and their body fur becomes fine in texture.
  • Newly-furred joeys must be fed every 4 hours, 6-7 times per day. Each feeding should take approximately 5-8 minutes and be followed by defecation.
  • Even more so than adults, young wallabies are prone to infection, so keep their environment free of feces, urine, and spilled milk.
  • Joey milk should be heated with hot water to achieve a tepid temperature. Avoid over-heating which may change the chemical composition of the milk.
  • In conjunction with bottle feeding, furred joeys can be offered water from a bowl to lap up, which will take them some getting used to.
  • Joeys are ready to be weaned when their stool changes from light and soft to dark brown and firm, which indicates they have developed gut flora for digestion of solid food.

Legality of Pet Wallabies

Like most uncommon exotic pets, wallabies are unfortunately not legal in all states in the United States. They tend to be legal in more states than primates, exotic felines and canines, venomous reptiles, bears, and other commonly prohibited species. In general, states that ban these marsupials have laws that restrict most non-traditional pets based on that factor alone.

Some states, like Colorado, specifically exempt wallabies from exotic animal possession bans. Legislation for exotic animals is constantly changing and is sometimes not even known by the officials who are supposed to enforce them, so it is the responsibility of a potential wallaby owner (and other uncommon exotic pet owners) to ensure their pet is legal by calling the authorities and to preferably get it in writing.

How Much Do They Cost?

Exotic mammals can be relatively costly. Depending on the species, color, and age of the wallaby, their pricing tends to start around $1000, with $2000 being the norm for captive-bred babies, but they can also cost up to $4000.

The cost of the animal is only the beginning, however, as the construction of a proper pen, sleeping quarters, and interior elements as well as veterinary care will also drive up the price.

Housing a Pet Wallaby

  • While babies can live indoors temporarily, adult wallabies should be housed (at least partially) outdoors in a large pen that has the space for their high activity level [6].
  • Different wallaby species may sometimes be successfully housed together, however, be aware that different species may try to interbreed [7].
  • Being especially prone to stress, their enclosure should offer security as well psychological stimulation [6]. Stressors can include (among groups) insufficient resting sites, feeding stations (sometimes more dominant male wallabies will gain priority with feeding), and cover [1].

Size of the Enclosure

Opinions differ on how large a wallaby's pen should be. Regardless of the dimensions chosen, there should be enough room for the animal to forage, travel to different enrichment sites, and have hopping room without being inhibited by barriers [6].

The height of the barriers is also extremely important to prevent escape. Underground fencing should prevent animals from digging to escape (or digging predators from entering) [1]. A good size to reference is 2 meters (6 feet) high with .5 meters (around 2 feet) below ground. The size of the spacing between the fencing should also be the proper size to prevent the animals from getting their heads caught between the grid [7].

Other considerations involve the location of the enclosure and storms that may down trees and destroy fencing which can result in escapes.

The proper substrate should be non-abrasive and have ‘give’ to it which is important for the health of the wallaby’s feet. Such substrate can include grass, sand, dirt, or some mulches [6]. It should also have a depth that allows the wallaby to make a space in it to rest comfortably [6]. A grassy yard is a good choice and mediums such as concrete are inappropriate for permanent housing, however, if this will be used, substrate like straw should be added to prevent pressure foot sores. Hard surfaces should also be cleaned frequently [7].

Vegetation can be strategically arranged in the enclosure to provide enrichment, enclose barriers that a spooked animal could potentially run into, provide shade, and be a barrier during inclement weather [7]. An additional visible screen in front of the main fence approximately 3 feet high will also help prevent traumatic injury and stress-related illness [10].

Sleeping Quarters

Within the wallaby’s enclosure should be a shelter for the animal to escape the elements and the stressors of everyday life. This nest box can be filled with material such as straw for the wallaby’s comfort [7]

Cleaning

To prevent infection and contamination from rodents and other pests, droppings and food scraps should be removed routinely. This can be accomplished with the use of a daily rake [4][7]. Food should be offered most often in a suspended feeding trough, rack, or hopper to prevent infection [1].

Replace dirtied straw, spot clean soiled areas around the enclosure, and check the perimeter for weeds, sharp branches, and areas along the fence that may need repair [6][7]. Hose down water troughs and any sections with hard flooring and occasionally scrub with an animal-friendly disinfectant [6][7].

Food and Feeding for the Captive Wallaby

Wild Diet

Wallabies are macropods and have differences from other herbivorous foregut fermenters, therefore their diets should be formulated with their species' wild diets as a model, initially [8].

Agile wallabies in the wild spend most of their time grazing when this resource is available, which is mostly in the autumn and winter seasons [7]. Bennet's wallabies may spend up to 15 hours per day browsing [1]. Macropods tend to prefer plant species high in nitrogen [7]. The preference of the yellow-footed rock wallaby is forbs and grasses, which comprise the majority of its diet when available [4].

Captive Diet

  • The base diet for wallabies should be composed of grasses when available and a commercial kangaroo pellet or cube [6][7].
  • Some owners may also feed cracked corn or wheat and alfalfa [7].
  • It is important to avoid foods that have sharp pieces because this can result in a condition called “lumpy jaw”, which is common in captive macropods. This applies to whole grain crops and some abrasive pieces of alfalfa that can cause trauma inside the cheeks [4][7].
  • Soft, supplementary foods fed in excess may cause the wallaby to chew vertically instead of horizontally which may also result in lumpy jaw [9].
  • To supplement the diet, root vegetables such as sweet potato, carrots, and produce like apples can be offered occasionally [6][7] as hard vegetables help clean the gums and teeth of grass pellet remnants and also provide vitamin A [6].
  • Softer fruits like banana and pear may get caught in the teeth and cause infection [7].
  • Supplementary salt licks containing vitamin E may provide essential minerals that replace what the wallaby would receive from dirt in the wild [6][7].
  • Parsley and spinach can also be offered sparingly [6].

Changing the food frequently helps to provide enrichment [6].

Base DietAdditionalSparingly

Natural browse

Sweet potato

Soft fruit

Grass pellets

Carrots

Spinach

Wallaby-specific diet

Apple

Parsley

Alfalfa (lucerne chaff)

Bamboo (Miscanthus giganteus)

Rice crackers

Corn (maize)

Horse cubes

Mineral lick

Oats

Wheat

Vitamin E supplement

Enrichment Needs

It is extremely important to keep all captive animals mentally stimulated through enclosure design, interactive objects, scents, and more. Of course, outdoor access and natural browsing opportunities provide significant psychological benefits, but animals should also be provided with an interesting environment to live in.

Having more than one wallaby can be enriching [9], however, field and captive studies have noted that Bennet's wallabies tend to disperse in large spaces instead of forming social groups, with interaction between males during breeding season being agonistic [1].

Wallaby enclosures can be outfitted with furnishings that encourage foraging behavior such as logs and leafy branches, available browse [6] extra trees to provide cover, ledges to jump on, deep substrate for digging, and fallen leaves, which some wallabies enjoy digging through [6][7].

Scatter-feeding other foods allows for extra foraging opportunities, [7] however, contamination with fecal matter needs to be taken into consideration [1]. Wallabies may also enjoy playing with balls, stuffed animals, filled burlap sacks, and other objects [7].

Health Problems in Pet Wallabies

These are just some of the potential health issues wallabies can contract in captivity, which is why consistent and proper husbandry, including maintaining cleanliness, is essential.

  • Candidiasis: Also known as thrush, this is an infection by naturally-occurring and opportunistic Candid species that manifest when the animal is stressed from various factors (antibiotic use, sudden change in diet, poor hygiene).
  • Coccidiosis: Poor hygienic practices can lead to infection from this parasite when oocysts are ingested from infected animals. This is a serious disease that can result in sudden death [7]. Prevention involves good practices such as daily cleaning and keeping food off the ground outdoors.
  • Pneumonia: Stress, food aspiration, and improper temperature can lead to a bacterial infection which causes this disease that can be fatal in severe cases. Lethargy, loud breathing, and depression are common symptoms. Concurrent conditions may include diarrhea and septicemia.
  • Other infections: Symptoms such as diarrhea can be a result of an overgrowth of the following common pathogens: E. coli, Salmonella, bacterial overgrowth from the gut flora, toxoplasmosis [5][9], and Cryptosporidium.
  • Lumpy Jaw: This causes necrosis of the jaw tissue and some parts of the head and it is a result of infection by the bacterium Fusobacterium necrophorum, which is possibly associated with the consumption of soft foods.

Where Can You Buy a Wallaby?

Wallabies are relatively common for exotic pets and are absolutely never taken from the wild to become pets in North America. While you are unlikely to come across wallabies in a pet store, locating breeders online is not difficult; although babies typically won't be immediately available and you may be placed on a waiting list.

Works Cited

  1. Chapman, Michelle Elizabeth. The social behaviour and captive management of Bennett's wallabies, Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus. Diss. University of Tasmania, 2003.
  2. Fall City Wallaby Ranch. "Caring For A Wallaby".
  3. Koene, Paul, Rudi M. de Mol, and Bert Ipema. "Behavioral ecology of captive species: Using bibliographic information to assess pet suitability of mammal species." Frontiers in veterinary science 3 (2016): 35.
  4. Miller, Adrienne. "Yellow-footed Rock Wallaby Husbandry Manual". Roger Williams Park Zoo.
  5. Miller, Margaret A., et al. "Outbreak of toxoplasmosis in wallabies on an exotic animal farm." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 4.4 (1992): 480-483.
  6. Phillips, Rhian. "Husbandry Manual For Bridled Nail-tail Wallaby". Western Sydney Institute of TAFE, Richmond..
  7. Sadler, Shayne. "Husbandry Guidelines for Agile Wallaby Macropus agilis Mammalia: (Macropodidae)." Western Sydney Institute of TAFE, Richmond.
  8. Smith, Joseph A. "Macropod nutrition." Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice 12.2 (2009): 197-208.
  9. Staker, Lynda. The complete guide to the care of Macropods. Lynda Staker, 2006.
  10. Valley Stables and Exotics. "Bennet's Wallabies".

© 2020 Melissa A Smith


Emus as Pets? Words of Caution for Beginners Who Really Want One

Keeping Emus as pets is an unconventional yet increasingly popular trend that is catching up. These are large, exotic birds, and must be taken care of with extreme attention to detail and patience.

Keeping Emus as pets is an unconventional yet increasingly popular trend that is catching up. These are large, exotic birds, and must be taken care of with extreme attention to detail and patience.

Dromaius novaehollandiae, popularly known as Emus, are the second largest birds in the world, coming after the ostrich. Their native land is the continent of Australia, and these are the largest birds found there. These birds are commonly found all over Australia, but have a tendency to avoid areas that are heavily-populated or densely-forested. Their average height is around 2 meters. Like ostriches, these birds too cannot fly (due to their immense body weight), but make up for their flightlessness by running extremely fast. Emus can reach a top speed of 50 km/hour if required, and can maintain this speed for a long period of time. They are highly nomadic by nature, and feed mostly on different varieties of insects and plants.

Popularity As Pets

Since the last 20 years or so, many farmers across the United States have begun breeding Emus in a big way. As a result of this, their popularity as pets has risen. Their exotic appearance and gentle nature makes keeping them as pets a very feasible option. Though keeping pet Emus may have aroused your curiosity and interest, be warned that taking care of them and living with them is not an easy task.

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When Emus are small, they may seem very cute and cuddly. However, as they begin to grow, keeping track of their movements and coping with their needs and requirements becomes more and more difficult. Also, they have very sharp claws which can badly injure a human being. They use these claws if they feel threatened. If you approach or try to catch an Emu that is ill or an Emu that is unfriendly, then be wary of its claws.

When you keep Emus as pets, you need to know what to feed them. As is the case with any other pets that you may have seen, Emus require food that they like and food that provides nourishment to their strong bodies. They are extremely curious by nature and will try to eat anything that they can get their long beaks on. The most common foods to feed an Emu can range from small plants to homemade recipes. Here is a list of what you can feed your pet Emus.

  • Insects, caterpillars, and other invertebrates.
  • Seeds and nuts.
  • Flowers, leaves, and other plant parts.
  • Lizards and other small animals.
  • Various salads like potato salad and macaroni salad.
  • Different recipes of eggs.

Ensure that you feed your Emus regularly, because if they find that they are not receiving enough food, then they tend to move on in search of other food sources. This could be harmful and very dangerous for them.

Suitability as Pets

There are many complications involved in keeping Emus as pets, and once you’ve understood the hassles involved, you must make a call about whether you will be able to deal with a pet Emu or not. If you are searching for an Emu to take home as a pet, then ensure that it is a small chick. To take home a grown up Emu that has never been someone’s pet before is not advisable. If the Emu has seen you and your family since its hatchling days, then it will be more comfortable being your pet.

When your Emu is young, touch it and pet it very often in order to get it accustomed to human touch. If it has not gotten used to the touch of a human being, it may react angrily to being touched once it grows up into a full-fledged adult. A huge pen and pet shelter will also be required. It will need some space to loiter around, and you need to provide it with that space. Emus, when kept as pets, may not show any wild tendencies or instincts, but you must be prepared for such tendencies to crop up at any given time.

Tips and Reminders

Remember the following pointers to ensure that you and your pet have a comfortable life together.

  • Emus are attracted to shiny and dangling objects. So remove any jewelry you’re wearing before approaching your Emu.
  • The pen or the shelter will stink a lot. So be prepared for that.
  • Buy an Emu from a reliable and reputable farmer, who will ensure that the health and sanitary procedures are carried out perfectly.
  • Emus can kick very hard, and they kick in front. So be wary when you stand in front of them or next to them.
  • Be extremely cautious about the Emus’ claws and talons. These are very sharp, and can seriously injure a human being.

Emus can be very affectionate and gentle, but at the same time can be very aggressive and moody. Learn to understand your pet Emu’s moods and act accordingly. Do not make it feel threatened or under threat in any way, as this will provoke a violent reaction from it. If you treat it right, it will be a source of great joy in your life.


Best Pet Insurance

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Veterinary costs account for a significant portion of the expenses associated with pet ownership. A single trip to the vet averages $160 for cats and $212 for dogs, but they can easily be much higher if your pet experiences an unexpected illness or injury. The cost of a single surgical visit is estimated to be $426 for a dog and $214 for a cat.  

To help manage the cost of owning a pet and prepare for unexpected veterinary emergencies, many pet parents choose to enroll in a pet insurance plan. These policies typically incur a low monthly cost but can pay for up to tens of thousands of dollars in unanticipated vet bills—coverage that could equal a life-saving operation for your pet.

To help you select the best coverage for your pet, we’ve rounded up the best pet insurance plans using a quantitative scoring system that evaluates policy offerings, value, pricing, customer service, and more. Here are the best options from our research.


Care guide: How to look after guinea pigs as pets

Guinea pigs are intelligent, charismatic and most importantly adorable little friends to introduce into your family. Learn everything you need to look after your new pets with our comprehensive guide to guinea pig care.

Guinea pig fact file

Life span – 5-9 years
Size – Up to 25cm
Diet – Hay, veggies and guinea pig pellets
Home – 7.5 square feet

Care and maintenance

Guinea pigs are also known as cavies, which is derived from the scientific name Cavia porcellus. According to the American Cavy Breeders Association, there are thirteen species of guinea pig. Most guinea pigs will live from five to nine years but, if kept in optimum conditions and in good health, some are known to live up to 10 years.

Guinea pigs are very sociable and group-oriented pets. If you’re bringing more than one guinea pig into your home, avoid choosing different sexes. Non-familiar males will generally fight, though males brought up together may not. If you’re keeping guinea pigs in groups, ensure they are single-sex or desexed individuals as this may help to eliminate aggression. Desexing your guinea pig may also reduce their risk of disease, increase their lifespan, make them calmer and stop them reproducing. Your local Greencross Vets will be able to do this for your new pet.

Your guinea pigs require a safe home, complete and balanced diet and plenty of love and attention. So be prepared to share lots of love and affection with your adorable new friends.

Setting up

The more guinea pigs you have, the bigger the hutch you’ll need. If breeding, the absolute minimum floor space required for one female is 1200cm 2 with a wall. A floor space of three to four times this is recommended if breeding guinea pigs. Ask your local Petbarn team member for advice on the perfect enclosure.

Line the hutch with newspaper covered with soft grass hay for bedding. Hang a drink bottle on the outside of the enclosure with the spout pointing inside. A heavy food bowl is necessary, as is a hidey hut and toys.

Place the enclosure out of reach of other animals and out of any areas exposed to draughts and direct sunlight. Provide adequate heat protection as guinea pigs are susceptible to heat stress. Avoid exposing guinea pigs to temperatures above 25°C for long periods of time. These pets will thrive in temperatures ranging from 18–25°C.

Spot clean your guinea pigs’ cage daily and do a thorough clean every two to three days. Replace the bedding, wipe down the cage with hot water and wash the elements, such as toys and drink bottles, with disinfectant. You’ll need a substitute home for your guinea pigs while you clean – a travel cage is perfect.

Feeding

Your new pet will need a constant source of hay as food and bedding to stay healthy. Chewing will also stop their teeth from growing too long. Find hay for guinea pigs at your local Petbarn.

Your pet will also love to munch on veggies like broccoli, cabbage and celery, as well as herbs like mint, parsley, and coriander. If harvesting plants from your backyard ensure they are free of pesticides, as these chemicals can be harmful to your pet. Keep in mind that you should throw out any fruit and vegetables that have been in their hutch for more than 24 hours.

You can also give guinea pig pellets, which you can find at your local Petbarn. These should only supplement other items on the menu, and not be the main basis of their diet. Avoid feeding your guinea pig grains, cereals or nuts as this may cause digestive problems.

Guinea pigs are unable to make their own vitamin C. While some vegetables contain vitamin C, you will need to provide your pets with a suitable supplement to keep them healthy.

Do NOT feed your guinea pig:
  • Grains
  • Cereals
  • Nuts
  • Lawn clippings
  • Rhubarb leaves
  • Pink clover
  • Hemlock
  • Chocolate
  • Caffeine
  • Alcohol

A guinea pig needs about 100ml of water per day, and it’s important to change their water daily. We suggest using a hanging water dispenser, as water bowls can be messy and are often tipped over. It’s best to refresh your guinea pig’s water every morning, but keep an eye on their water during hot days.

Grooming

An essential part of parenting a guinea pig is grooming. Just like you, your guinea pig will need some hair maintenance every once in a while. Using a firm, soft brush – you can find suitable guinea pig grooming options at your local Petbarn – remove any excess hair, tangles, or anything else that may have been caught up in there, like twigs and leaves.

During your regular grooming routine, make sure to check your guinea pig’s skin and nails. You will need to take your guinea pig to your local Greencross Vets for a little manicure when their claws get too long.

Handling and grooming your guinea pig once a day will give you plenty of bonding time and will improve their confidence and comfort when being handled. Guinea pigs are best picked up when they’re in the crouch position. Placing your hand over their shoulders will encourage them to get into this position so you are then able to scoop them up from underneath with your other hand. Be sure to use both hands to hold them, as they startle easily and may scamper off. Hold them close to you and support them from underneath. Consistent daily interaction is the key to winning over your guinea pig. Use a gentle voice and steady movements to settle your pet and help them develop trust.

Health care

Guinea pigs are susceptible to contracting various ailments. If cared for properly and taken for biannual check-ups at your local Greencross Vets, your guinea pig will be less likely to fall ill. A few of the many guinea pig veterinary needs offered for you and your pet are: desexing for both male and female guinea pigs, parasite control, dental care, preventative medicine, nutritional and husbandry advice and supplies, and nail trimming.

Your guinea pig is vulnerable to skin ailments, fleas, vitamin C deficiency and dental problems. One of the key things to remember with your guinea pig is that their teeth grow constantly. They need to have plenty of chew sticks and abrasive foods such as celery, broccoli, corn and husks to gnaw on and keep their teeth trim and in check. If their teeth become overgrown, it can lead to serious health problems and will need to be looked at by your vet.

If your guinea pig shows signs of lethargy, irregular bowel movements, a dull coat, itchiness or are disinterested in eating, they will need medical attention. A healthy guinea pig will be alert, active and have a shiny coat.

If you notice your pet is showing any of these signs, don’t hesitate to visit your local Greencross Vets who can recommend the right health products or treatments your guinea pig may need.

Pet safety tips

Let your pet run inside or outside every so often. Get a playpen for outdoor runs. For indoor adventures, block any small holes and ensure no other animals have access to the room. Remove electrical wires, ingestible items and toxic plants and maintain supervision at all times. When they’re feeling energetic, a guinea pig is likely to start ‘popcorning’, where they jump around in excitement. This is a happy sing from your pet, though they may grow out of it when they get a little older.

Don’t house guinea pigs with other small animals such as rabbits. Mixing guinea pigs with rabbits is not recommended as it can spread disease. You want to create a stress-free environment for your new pets and housing them with animals double their size will have the opposite effect.

Guinea pig checklist

Find everything you need for your guinea pig in the small animals supplies section of Petbarn online and in-store.


Description

The only book of its kind with in-depth coverage of the most common exotic species presented in practice, this comprehensive guide prepares you to treat invertebrates, fish, amphibians and reptiles, birds, marsupials, North American wildlife, and small mammals such as ferrets, rabbits, and rodents. Organized by species, each chapter features vivid color images that demonstrate the unique anatomic, medical, and surgical features of each species. This essential reference also provides a comprehensive overview of biology, husbandry, preventive medicine, common disease presentations, zoonoses, and much more. Other key topics include common health and nutritional issues as well as restraint techniques, lab values, drug dosages, and special equipment needed to treat exotics.

The only book of its kind with in-depth coverage of the most common exotic species presented in practice, this comprehensive guide prepares you to treat invertebrates, fish, amphibians and reptiles, birds, marsupials, North American wildlife, and small mammals such as ferrets, rabbits, and rodents. Organized by species, each chapter features vivid color images that demonstrate the unique anatomic, medical, and surgical features of each species. This essential reference also provides a comprehensive overview of biology, husbandry, preventive medicine, common disease presentations, zoonoses, and much more. Other key topics include common health and nutritional issues as well as restraint techniques, lab values, drug dosages, and special equipment needed to treat exotics.


Watch the video: Living with a Wallaby (July 2021).