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7 Reasons Why Exotic Pets Are Illegal and Why They Shouldn’t Be


Melissa cares for a variety of exotic animals and has completed a certificate in veterinary assisting and a bachelor's degree in biology.

1. Overstated Concerns for Public Safety

It is extremely frustrating to exotic pet owners that many animals are illegal because of public safety concerns. The reasoning is often hideously unfounded and silly.

You will find that most states have bans on the following families of animals that I refer to as the "big 5":

  • Canidae (dogs)
  • Felidae (felines)
  • Urisidea (bears)
  • Primates
  • "Dangerous Reptiles": Venomous Reptiles, "Large" Constrictor Snakes, "Large" Monitor Lizards, and Crocodilians

This might sound reasonable, but often thrown into that mix are smaller non-lethal species like the fennec fox or marmoset. If an animal has teeth, it can bite, but that is not grounds for banning it, particularly when we certainly don’t care about the millions of dog bites or infectious cat bites and scratches that are just accepted as part of life’s misfortunes.

While drastically overstated, the largest carnivores are a public safety issue but owners should be judged by their capacity to house these animals properly, not by the nature of the captivity (exemptions to the bans are often given to zoos, sanctuaries, and research facilities, but never for pet owners).

2. Extremely Rare Diseases and Rabies

Some state officials fear the spread of zoonotic diseases (agents transferable to humans) from exotic pets with rabies being considered the most. Many states ban rabies vectors, which are canids, skunks, raccoons, and bats.

Domesticated dogs, cats, and ferrets have an approved rabies vaccine. Species that don’t never will because they aren’t popular enough for someone to fund the research for them, therefore, while the vaccines more than likely work, it can't be proven.

Therefore, non-domesticated mammals may be killed so that their brain can be tested for rabies if they bite someone. Despite this, outdoor cats and wildlife are most commonly found with the virus although overall incidences of rabies transmitted to humans are extremely rare. In fact, all serious diseases an exotic pet could potentially transmit to humans are rare and preventable.

3. Bans Against Native Animals

Many native animals are illegal to possess and fall under the jurisdiction of the state’s Department of Agriculture. This includes, depending on the state, animals like red foxes, 6-banded armadillos, grey squirrels, opossums, white-tailed deer, and Canada geese. The laws exist to ‘protect’ our country’s wildlife from over-exploitation. These laws have resulted in the extremely unnecessary removal and euthanasia of orphaned wildlife successfully taken in and raised by private individuals.

Keeping native animals as pets should be legal, provided that the proper controls are put in place. States should allow licensed breeders to sell native animals and the owner would only need to provide proof it was captive bred. This is the case in New Jersey with skunks and raccoons.

People should be allowed to apply for a license to keep confirmed, orphaned, and non-releasable wildlife like deer, which would also decrease euthanasia rates or dependency on the rehabilitation facilities.

4. Misguided Environmental Concerns

Many exotic pets are illegal because someone thinks they will harm the environment either by escaping and forming invasive populations or introducing diseases.

I don’t want to tempt fate, but it is slightly ironic that the exotic pet species with the highest potential to cause problems in the ecosystem are the least likely to be banned. Reptiles, birds, and aquatic life are far more accepted in our society than mammals like primates, raccoons, and non-domesticated felines. Lionfish, Burmese pythons, and green iguanas are popular examples of problematic pet trade species; of course, only Florida and Hawaii and possibly teeny portions of nearby states have hospitable climates for these animals.

While most reptiles and birds need tropical climates, one exception to this is the monk parakeet, a green parrot that can survive and reproduce as far north as New York. Due to this, this species is banned in many states. It makes a lot more sense to prohibit species that we know are causing a problem, and certainly not to ban species that we know are highly unlikely to cause an issue with basic common sense. For example, a Burmese python will never escape and breed in the wilds of Minnesota.

My research has shown that problematic populations of mammals from the exotic pet trade are very rare. On the other hand, introduced populations of formally domesticated animals are wide spread and very problematic. Cats, dogs, horses, swine, and goldfish are causing severe damage to the areas where they’ve been introduced and most of these animals are established with increasing populations.

California’s famously stupid laws ban ferrets and gerbils for fear that they will propagate or hybridize with wild ferrets in the state’s mild climate. Tons of people keep ferrets there anyway and no such feral populations exist.

5. Arbitrary Categorizations of Animals

People make the most noise about how it is somehow wrong to own pets that happen not to be traditional, but I rarely see states banning animals on the grounds that the welfare of the animal is compromised in the pet trade. California is one exception. Their ordinance states:

The commission has determined the below listed animals are not normally domesticated in this state. Mammals listed to prevent the depletion of wild populations and to provide for animal welfare are termed "welfare animals", and are designated by the letter "W". Those species listed because they pose a threat to native wildlife, the agriculture interests of the state or to public health or safety are termed "detrimental animals" and are designated by the letter "D".

Some animals deemed 'welfare' include anteaters, elephants, otters, hyrax, and sloths. Most states carelessly toss all non-traditional pets into a 'dangerous' category while California labels most animals as either detrimental to the environment or having compromised welfare.

Placing so many animals into the same group is ridiculous. They are not all difficult to care for and neither are all owners the same in how they care for their pets. There are people who cannot care for ‘easy’ pets like cats and dogs but that is no reason to ban everyone from having them.

6. Fear

People waste their time making it illegal to own exotic pets because people fear that which is the least likely to cause them harm. It is common for a single exotic pet-related incident to cause legislators to scramble to ban a formally legal animal when the public responds with outrage.

In another article I determined that out of the 260ish exotic cat attacks that resulted in a serious injury between the years 1990-2014, only about 6 of these incidents involved members of the uninvolved public (if you do not intentionally visit, handle, or live with the cat). That means captive exotic cats seriously harmed only 6 people who couldn't have avoided the attack (or children who live with the owners) in 25 years when thousands (or millions?) of exotic cats exist in the country.

Most exotic pets are not large and dangerous yet most people perceive them as such and legislators follow suit.

7. Lack of Public Understanding and Support

There are millions of dog and cat owners in the United States so any problems associated with these pets will never affect their legal status (with the exception of certain dog breeds).

Due to its sensitive, tiny, ecosystem Hawaii has very strict rules on what pets can be kept, but zero prohibitions on cats, feral or otherwise, that hunt prolifically and cause damage.

Exotic animals don't even need to cause a problem to get banned. Why? Not enough people keep them, therefore no one really cares. To make matters worse, sometimes established exotic pet owners enjoy the bans if they can somehow exempt themselves.

As it is uncommon for people to own a fox, anteater, or capybara, there's less people to stand up against proposals to ban them. Meanwhile, there is currently a battle between cat colony caretakers and bird conservationists to remove the feral animals from a protected wildlife sanctuary in New York.

The fate of the exotic pet trade is in the hands of our misguided culture, not in real, informed decisions about why or why not it should be allowed.

Zari on March 04, 2020:

These animals should not be pets and since i am writing an essay this is a perfect source. thanks to the author.

xari on April 19, 2019:

Exotic and wild animals should not be owned.Not ony can you be harmful to them the can be for you. Born Free data base is full of horrible and bizarre events involving exotic pets. On Sunday (Oct. 16), a 4-year-old boy in Texas was mauled by a pet mountain lion kept by his aunt, and hospitalized for his injuries. In September, an 80-year-old man in Ohio was attacked by a 200-pound kangaroo at an exotic animal farm. And in June, a Nebraska man in his 30s was strangled to death by his pet boa constrictor. Its also hard to take care of wild animals properly,Unlike zoos, private enclosures are generally self-funded and self-managed. Even if owners have done quite a bit of research beforehand, it is difficult to simulate an animal’s natural environment without a large budget. Inevitably, exotic pets may be abandoned or die when their owners can’t meet their needs. It seems your research was done with a bit of arrogance. The laws also focuses on larger animals like tigers, bears etc.even dear which are timid creaters who can not defend them selves. The actual states It is illegal to possess any wild animal who naturally lives in the state (ie., squirrels, crows, deer) unless you are transporting the animal to a licensed wildlife rehabilitator for care. It is illegal to provide rehabilitation to a sick, injured or orphaned wild animal without proper permits and licenses. Even if you if the animals are bays they can grow up to be unpredictable vicious creatures one site says "in June, a Nebraska man in his 30s was strangled to death by his pet boa". And these are only some of the few reasons wild pets should not be owned

non ya biz on December 07, 2018:

Yeah bit still this is true stuff

no ya bees wax on October 30, 2018:

their basically saying geuniea pigs are dangerous because their exotic animals

non ya biz on January 19, 2018:

i think that u should right about wolfs cause i like wolfs and i wanna know more

Madison on January 18, 2018:

I believe that Large exotic animals like (Bears, Wolfs, Big cats and etc.) Should only be owed by people who at least have been around a full grown adult and have the experience for that animal. For me I think the only exotic animal that should never ever be owned is a chimpanzees and other Ape's because they are a very dangerous animal and are very territorial.

Owen on November 16, 2017:

Yes, and when you've finished with the bunny article please write something about the deterioration of the Olympic stadiums in Brazil

Pet lover on May 13, 2017:

I love that you write things about exotic pets but I would like if you wrote something about bunnies please(Only if you like and know about them).

Thank you!


By Lauren Malmberg, Peoria County Animal Protection Services

The recent discovery of an American Alligator living in a home in the City of Peoria alerts us all to the dangers of having wild and exotic animals as pets. Although most pet owners keep domestic animals in their homes, some people must have an unusual or noteworthy animal as a pet — which often means wild, exotic and, in many cases, dangerous.

Surprisingly, exotic animals like sugar gliders, bearded dragons, flying squirrels, veiled chameleons, spotted pythons, lions, and even poisonous frogs can be purchased with very little money. None of these make good pets and, in fact, often suffer in households who can’t properly provide for them. Most people are ill-prepared and inexperienced when it comes to the care of exotic and wild animals, and the pets don’t fare well because their behavioral and nutritional needs cannot be met. They also present a danger for the owners and community and, in some places, are actually illegal to own.

Before you consider an exotic animal as a pet, please consider these factors:

  • Wild animals require special care that most people cannot or will not provide. Wild animals have special dietary and environmental requirements that can be inconvenient. The more unusual animals simply cannot receive the necessary diet and exercise to live a healthy and humane life. Consider the tiger: when living in the wild, tigers roam miles of territory. Can a tiger living in a cage or in a backyard possibly get the kind of physical and behavioral activity he should have? And, wild animals live long lives — the American Alligator can live to be 70–80 years old — who can commit to a pet for that long?
  • Wild animals cannot be domesticated. Domestication requires thousands of years of selective breeding. Animals born in captivity or even hand raised remain wild in nature — with all of the environmental and behavioral needs as one born and living in the wild. And, they remain unpredictable. Wild animals can never be expected to behave as a domesticated dog or cat they will ultimately resort to their natural instincts which can be difficult or impossible to manage.
  • Wild animals are dangerous. The cute little baby can grow into a feces-slinging, biting, and fighting monkey that will be stronger — pound for pound — than any human. People get injured and killed each year by wild animals in captivity. Even if the wild pet can be handled by its owner, consider what may happen if an emergency occurs and rescue personnel must enter the home or the animal escapes.
  • Wild animals present health risks. Many exotic animals are carriers of zoonotic diseases, such as Herpes B, Monkey Pox, rabies, and Salmonellosis, all of which are communicable to humans. According to Live Science, 90 percent of all reptiles carry and shed salmonella in their feces. Born Free USA notes that 80 percent to 90 percent of all macaque monkeys are infected with Herpes B-virus (or Simian B), a virus that is harmless to monkeys but often fatal in humans.
  • Wild animals suffer in captivity. Deprived of their natural diet, environment, and activity, most exotic pets fail to thrive. While often owned by people who profess to love their species, these animals are sentenced to a life of cruel imprisonment and deprivation. Rather than roaming free, exotic pets live in artificial situations — some never see sunshine or venture outdoors.
  • Wild animals’ suffering begins with their capture. When these animals get captured for sale, they often experience stress, injury and trauma and can become sick or even die during transit.
  • Claims that these animals provide an educational value are simply not true. Neither children nor adults learn about wild animals by keeping them as pets. To truly learn about these animals and appreciate their value to our world, we must observe them in their natural habitat.
Finally, after living lives deprived of their natural behaviors, these pets become a nuisance, inconvenient, or too dangerous to keep. Irresponsible owners may just turn their pet free, even though the local natural environment isn’t suitable. Other owners may try to find a zoo, institution, sanctuary, or shelter that will accept them. Whatever the outcome, the animal continues to suffer.

Wild animals have a place and purpose in our world. They are not meant to be pets nor should they be part of traveling exhibits or be forced to perform in circuses or other events. Although we may love them, keeping them as pets only serves to harm them. Wild animals should remain in their natural environment - for their best interest and ours.

If you see an animal who looks abandoned, neglected, or in distress, please call local animal control or law enforcement. Your call can mean the difference between responsible, humane care for the animal or a lifetime of suffering. Peoria County Animal Protection Services can help if you lose your pet or see an animal injured or in need. Call PCAPS at 309-672-2440 for information or to report animal cruelty or abuse.

This article is sponsored by Waggin’ Tails Doggy Daycare and Resort, Goodfield, IL. Email [email protected] or call 309-642-9299 for your dogs boarding, doggy daycare, and grooming needs. Soon to open in Peoria!

Photo credit: RollingEarth/iStock Back to Top


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About Eric


What Can You Do?

We’ve seen the damage that can be done when irresponsible and uneducated citizens acquire exotic animals to keep as pets. Although there may be rare cases where families have lived with exotic animals without being physically harmed, these pets are still wild animals that deserve their freedom. They’re not suited to be pets, but sadly once they are raised in captivity they can never be released back into the wild.

Protecting the wild populations of any species does not entail keeping them held captive as pets. Instead, we must continue to dissuade the public from buying exotic animals in an effort to reduce the demand that is currently fueling the illegal wildlife trade. If you are looking for a pet, consider adopting one of the millions of domestic animals waiting for homes in shelters. It is our responsibility to keep wild animals wild.


Pets like cats and dogs have been domesticated over thousands of years, which means they have been selectively bred for specific traits that mean they can live with humans in captivity without fear or suffering. Wild animals just aren’t born to live in our homes. Even those bred in captivity still possess the same qualities of a wild animal which make them unsuitable to be kept in a domestic environment.

Image: Asian Otters, an increasingly popular exotic pet in Japan and Thailand. Photo credit: Fernando Machado.


Watch the video: 10 Animals That Came Back From Extinction (July 2021).