Dr. Mark is a veterinarian. He has been working with dogs for more than 40 years.
10 Signs of an Overly Submissive Dog
If you are reading this article, it is probably because you know that your dog is overly submissive. Here are some of the signs you might have noticed, and some other signs that indicate a submissive disposition.
- Dribbles urine on the carpet when you come into a room and talk to her or pet her.
- Dribbles urine when you raise your voice, even when it has nothing to do with the dog (speaking on the phone, etc.). Some dogs dribble when they hear loud noises, too.
- Assumes a submissive stance (tail between her legs, ears flat, crouching, or even lying on her back with her belly exposed), and then pees whenever a visitor reaches down to pet her.
- Avoids eye contact or makes it only briefly, then sniffs the ground or looks away.
- Goes into a submissive stance whenever meeting other dogs. Your dog may also dribble urine when coming up to a strange dog.
- Allows other dogs to put a paw over her shoulder.
- Licks the other dog on her muzzle when greeting. This is a calming signal, and one way in which your submissive dog lets the other know that he is just like a puppy and not to be feared. Some submissive dogs use this signal with people, too; owners think it is like kissing.
- Hides underneath furniture. Many people will tell me how their dog loves their crate, and not even realize that the dog is in fear and using the cage in order to hide.
- Whines excessively.
- Has a submissive grin (rolls the upper lips up like a growl—it is not a growl!).
4 Ways to Build Your Dog's Confidence
There are several methods you can use to improve your submissive dog's confidence.
1. Work on obedience training.
Daily obedience work, even when it is only for a short time, provides submissive dogs with a lot of confidence. Family members are proud of dogs that perform on command and dogs pick up on this feeling.
If the obedience training is harsh, though, a submissive dog will just get worse. Find a positive reinforcement and reward-based training class in your area. If the trainer works with a discipline-based system, it is not appropriate for a submissive dog.
2. Socialize your dog as much as possible to make them adaptable.
The sensitive socialization period for your dog ended when she was a puppy, about 15 weeks of age, but she can still be socialized as an older dog, it is just going to take a lot more work.
To socialize your dog, take her out as much as possible, let her meet new people, let her meet your friends' dogs (if they are friendly with other dogs), and let her run free at the dog park so that she will meet new dogs. (Some dogs will be too nervous to play at the dog park so this phase may only come later.)
3. Give your dog a job or get him involved in a canine sport.
If your dog is a herder and you have livestock, it is likely that he will be so busy that he will not have time to develop overly submissive behavior.
Most dogs are not able to work, however, so in order to give them an activity to build their confidence, it is a good idea to get them involved in one of the canine sports. Flyball, agility, Frisbee, dock diving, and other activities may be available in your area.
4. Use counter-conditioning techniques to help him overcome fear.
This is the best but also the hardest (for you!) of the methods available to treat a submissive dog. For each thing that your dog is afraid of, you have to train him to have a pleasant feeling. When a dog is no longer afraid of the situation, he is confident and no longer going to be submissive.
If you decide to try to build his confidence through counter-conditioning, the first thing you have to identify is the trigger. What is stimulating your dog to be so submissive? If he is only afraid of one thing it is easier to train him; unfortunately, most submissive dogs are afraid of almost everything. Spend some time with your dog to become familiar with his fears.
The next step is to teach him that the scary thing is actually a good thing. When he is exposed to the scary object, give him a tasty treat and let him relax around the object without any pressure.
The final step in counter-conditioning your dog to face his fears is to expose him and not provide a treat or even notice that he is being exposed. If you need more help on using counter-conditioning, the animal behaviorist Patricia McConnell has a book that I have found to be useful. The techniques are great and will help your dog develop confidence but as with most behavior modification, takes patience and persistence.
More Ideas on Working With a Submissive Dog
You should not treat an overly submissive dog just like a happy-go-lucky or dominant dog. If you use the methods above and treat your dog a little more carefully in the meantime, this problem can go away.
- Do not reach down and pet your dog as soon as you come into the room.
- Do not stare at your dog.
- Do not scold your dog if she dribbles on the carpet. Take her to another room or put her outside in an enclosed yard so that she does not watch you cleaning up.
- Do not reach over your dog and pat her on top of the head.
- Do not hug your dog.
- Do not speak in an angry or excited voice, even if you are about to take the dog on a walk.
- Do not lock your dog in her crate every time someone comes over to your house. You are only encouraging her submissive behavior.
Is Your Dog's Submissive Behavior Dangerous?
Overly submissive behavior is a sign of fear. Dogs that are fear biters are more dangerous than aggressive biters because people tend to underestimate how much damage they can do.
By following these tips on building your dogs confidence when she is overly submissive, you can prevent her from becoming a fear biter.
Get Started Today
Your dog did not develop submissive behavior in just a day, and it is not possible to train her out of that behavior in just a day. This is going to take some time and some work.
If you do not feel like you have enough time to work with your dog, your dog has already become so fearful that she bites when worked with, or you just do not want to spend all of the hours needed to teach your dog to no longer be submissive, consult a professional. Dog trainers will work on this problem, or you can consult a behaviorist. If you need a referral, talk with your regular veterinarian.
I urge you to take care of this problem now before your dog develops fearful behaviors that can lead to fear biting.
Questions & Answers
Question: My seven-year-old female GSD has still not warmed up to my husband after nine months. She will pee or hide every time she thinks he is going to take her out. She follows me everywhere, but does not seem to experience separation anxiety when I leave for work. She is not submissive to other dogs. What can we do to help her overcome this fear?
Answer: This is a problem, but it is not as serious as a fear aggressive dog. It does take some time, and will require some changes, but your GSD needs to start seeing your husband as her provider and caretaker, and things will change.
Every time he comes in a room with her, he needs to toss her a treat. (Do not try to approach her at first, as this will probably scare her and she will be afraid to eat the treat.)
He needs to be the one to feed her.
He should be the ONLY one to take her out for a walk.
How long is this going to take? I cannot tell you for sure. Some dogs get over this problem in a few days, but some take weeks or even months. Eventually she will see your husband as "that guy who gives me a treat" and look forward to seeing him everytime.
This works with deliverymen too. If your dog is barking excessively or is scared of the postal carrier or UPS guy, you need to give them some treats so that they give her one every time they approach your house.
Again, they should toss them from afar, and not scare her by trying to hand a treat to her.
Question: Our puppy is almost a year old, when should we start training him?
Answer: Training should have begun about a year ago. I start my puppies out as soon as they arrive in my home.
You have already been training your dog. Unfortunately, he has also been picking up a lot of bad habits if you have not started training already.
Question: My dog pees on the couch every time I go to take him for a walk. How do I get him to stop this?
Answer: A dog that pees on the couch when it is time to go for a walk may have excitement urination. The most straightforward solution to this problem is to call him to you every time before showing the leash and telling him it is time to go out. He may dribble when he is excited, so call him to the kitchen or entrance, somewhere you have a tile or hardwood floor, and it will be a lot easier to clean up.
Do not scold him or hit him for doing this. It is not his fault. A lot of dogs grow out of excitement urination, but not all, so calling him off of the couch is the best idea.
I had a dog that would urinate on the couch every time the doorbell rang. He did not grow out of the problem, so these are the steps we used to train him to be less reactive to the bell./dogs/Help-My-Dog-is-Peeing-... It was not always easy, but sometimes this problem can persist if you are not persistent in getting rid of it.
© 2018 Dr Mark
Dr Mark (author) from The Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil on April 17, 2018:
Making up the phrase counter conditioning? Really?
BellatheBall on April 16, 2018:
This is a good article. however, I don't think there is any reason to muddy the waters by making up a phrase such as "counter conditioning". What is the reason?
The first step to training the "shy" dog, not to be confused with the submissive dog, is to try and understand what type of trauma the dog has been though in the past.
Sometimes this is not possible, such as with a rescued dog. In that case, a handler with just have to figure it out as best as possible.
But a shy dog is not the same as a 'submissive' dog.
A submissive dog is the opposite of a lead dog.
Not the same.
Dr Mark (author) from The Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil on April 05, 2018:
Adrienne, thanks for those comments on counterconditioning. I agree that it is very detailed and it seems difficult to even go over it in an article. (Which is why I suggested Dr McConnells book.) I wrote another article on counterconditioning for use in dogs that are afraid of fireworks but it does not get much traffic. I think that is a shame because those techniques have can do a lot of good for dogs if they are performed correctly.
I hope your Rotties are doing well.
Adrienne Farricelli on April 04, 2018:
Bellatheball, I don't mean to be harsh, but any dog trainer or behavior professional in the field should know who Patricia McConnell is. It's like being a doctor and not knowing who Louis Pasteur is.
Positive reinforcement is much different than counterconditioning. In positive reinforcement something is added when the dog performs an operant behavior. It's all about consequences, albeit there's also an element of classical conditioning going on (Pavlov is always on your shoulder as the saying goes).
Counterconditioning instead entails changing the emotional response to a stimulus. It is a very powerful behavior modification protocol and is not just "giving treats." That oversimplifies things and degrades a very effective behavior modification protocol that, not coincidentally, is also used in applied behavior analysis for humans.
Dr Mark (author) from The Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil on February 17, 2018:
Thank you Louise. That first photo is of my dog Ajej playing with her sister in front of my house. She is a super dog, but one of the reasons all my other dogs grow up so submissive! (She has that "you looking at me?" complex.)
Louise Powles from Norfolk, England on February 17, 2018:
There's some really good advice there. My dog isn't submissive, but you've given some really useful information here. I love the photographs too.
Dr Mark (author) from The Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil on February 15, 2018:
Bella, telling you that I disagree with you is degrading you? That proves to me that you are being oversensitive. Adults learn to discuss things like adults.
If you really feel like you are an expert in the subject, perhaps you could write something more helpful than an article on how ladies should guard their credit cards.
BellatheBall on February 14, 2018:
No, and I don't know who Patricia McConnell is either. I think the terms that we use matter, and degrading me just proves that you are not fully proficient in dog behavior.
Perhaps it would help if you could turn to writing articles in your field of expertise, such as Dog First Aid, What Vaccinations your Dog needs and When, When is Time to Say Goodbye, How to Prep Your Best Friend for Surgery, etc.
Dr Mark (author) from The Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil on February 12, 2018:
Hi Bella, you remind me of Patricia McConnell and the other animal behaviorists when they decided that the term "dominance" was misunderstood and decided it should no longer be used. They stopped publishing papers using that term, but since everyone else still used it they did not matter.
You may use the phrase insecure if you wish but the rest of the world uses the phrase submissive.
As per your comment, are you suggesting that the way to help a submissive (or insecure) dog is by gettting rid of him so that he will have a new owner?
BellatheBall on February 11, 2018:
While this article seeks to address the problems of a 'submissive' dog, the behavior described is actually that of an insecure dog.
In every group, or pack, of dogs, there is a Leader of the pack, Lieutenants, or dogs that support the Leader, and then submissive dogs, or dogs that follow orders.
This article is describing insecure dogs, or dogs that are shy and afraid of normal objects and activities, like say, a trip to the vet.
Usually a insecure dog can helped through this insecurity by having a calm and secure owner or handler. A nervous owner or handler will only make the situation worse. Positive reinforcement is a good idea, but beware of giving too many treats as this will not be a cure and could be harmful.
Bob Bamberg on February 06, 2018:
Hi Doc, I continue to do great, thank you. I go in to Boston tomorrow for my pre-op PET scan (funny test for a pet food salesman and pet writer), appointment with the surgeon, and pre-op evaluation. I continue physically and emotionally unfazed by my condition or my treatment. No side effects except minor hair loss occurring now, but you'd never know it. It's coming out in an even shed of short, uniform length hairs, not in clumps. I guess I'm shedding my undercoat. My surgery is in a couple of weeks...the 21st of February.
I thought a 5th choice could be "all of the above." All four choices are valid reasons to change a dog's submissive behavior and I find it difficult to pick just one.
Dr Mark (author) from The Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil on February 06, 2018:
Hi Bob good to see you. I hope you are doing okay. I appreciate your comment, as always, but you made me curious: what is the 5th choice that I forgot to put on there? This is the best time to change it, before there are any votes.
Bob Bamberg on February 05, 2018:
Good hub, Doc. I see submissive urination a lot during my job servicing various pet supply stores. Many customers bring their dogs with them, of course, and will ask other owners if their dogs can say, Hello." This greeting often produces submissive urination.
When not engaging dog and cat owners I walk around the store...orbiting the aisles, I call it. I also call it pee patrol because I often discover little puddles of pee that I report to store personnel so they can clean it up.
Owners can identify submissive urination because it's often just a bit more than a spoonful or two, as opposed to what was just in an emptied bladder. Just curious; did you intend to put a 5th choice on the poll?
Medical Causes of Inappropriate Urination
If you suspect your dog’s urination is not related to submission, it’s important to rule out other causes before attempting to correct the behavior.
What you consider an accident may be a symptom of something your dog can’t control. Causes may include:
- Gastrointestinal upset. Upset digestion can come from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), kidney disease, or simple short-term irritation after eating something bad.
- Change in diet. If your dog is eating or drinking more or less than usual, their bathroom habits will also change.
- Urinary incontinence. Your dog may not have the ability to “hold it” when they need to pass urine. They may also have a weak bladder.
- Urinary tract infection (UTI). A UTI can cause your dog to pass urine without realizing it.
If your dog is having trouble with inappropriate urination, talk to your vet to see if testing or treatment may be needed to rule out underlying medical causes.
15 Tips To Overcome Submissive Urination
Submissive urination is a dog’s uncontrollable, instinctive reaction to the presence of another dog or human that they feel is superior or is intimidating to them. It is a subconscious response that cannot be controlled. It is not a housebreaking issue, although it is more likely to happen when the bladder is full. It can often be a reaction to a specific action such as putting a leash on the dog or simply leaning down to stroke him.
Excited urination is different in that a puppy will usually grow out of this reaction. Submissive urination, however, often has to be overcome though training. Dogs read body language extremely well and we, as owners, sometimes give off the incorrect signals, resulting in the dog offering submissive gestures such as urination. Fear, lack of confidence, sensitivity, confusion and nervousness can result in submissive urination in older dogs as well. It can also be triggered through inappropriate punishment, although this does not always have to be the case.
You should never punish submissive urination—it will only make it problem worse. It is important to remember that your reaction and body language to the problem can intensify it, so be sure not to cause fear or anxiety for your dog.
There are many things we can do to minimize submissive urination. The main training goal is to build confidence and to redirect the dog’s mind to other actions than urinating when concerned or excited.
Here are 15 tips to help:
- Don’t attempt to reassure your dog or reinforce his actions. Keep quiet but relaxed. Ignore his behavior.
- Familiarize him gradually in small stages with noises, people, and other dogs. Don’t rush him into situations and experiences. Build up gradually.
- Do basic obedience training. Make it fun and confidence building.
- Use a crate when you cannot supervise. Put his crate near a door allowing him to get outside quickly, potentially avoiding an accident.
- Take him out regularly to do his business so his bladder will not build up pressure.
- Do not go straight to his crate when entering a room. Allow him to calm down first, before letting him out.
- When you go to the crate to let him out do so quietly. Don’t talk to him.
- If he urinates don’t say anything, get him outside and then clean up without him seeing you do this.
- When out in the yard, do not call him up to you but walk slowly around with him. Give him a command to urinate and praise him calmly using voice only when he does.
- Do everything slowly and work at making your body language calm and unconcerned. Keep verbal volume low.
- Be non-threatening. Don’t stare at him or show displeasure no matter how you feel.
- Spend time sitting with him by your side on a leash.
- Take him for walks where he can gradually be exposed to the situations that trigger his urination.
- Ask friends to practice no touch, no talk, no eye contact around him.
- Avoid situations and people that you cannot control until your dog is learning to control himself and gain confidence.
Submissive urination can be annoying, but exhibiting your frustration to your dog only makes it worse. With a little planning and adjusting your attitude, you can minimize and overcome the problem.
Tell us in what situations your dog has displayed submissive urination.